By Prerana Tara, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies.

No less than 20.9 million children and adults are purchased and sold worldwide into business sexual servitude, constrained work and bonded work. Around 2 million kids are abused consistently in the worldwide business sex exchange. Just about 6 in 10 recognized trafficking survivors were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Ladies and young ladies make up 98% of casualties of trafficking for sexual exploitation.


This underground market in people, termed as human trafficking functions by the benign rules of supply and demand- which makes this market particularly grotesque because the commodity is human life and the exchange results in modern-day slavery. Each victim is manipulated through the threat of violence or its use; each is a displaced person, in foreign circumstances that increase his or her dependence on the slaveholder; each represents a profitable input in an underground market but is considered, paradoxically, in a highly expendable input; and each is, practically surviving in a reality that evades the intervention of law.

Fundamentally, human trafficking deprives people of their human rights and freedoms. This is the most prominent reason why the governments worldwide have assumed leadership roles in confronting this despicable practice as it is a global threat, profoundly harming individual victims and facilitating the transmission of diseases including HIV/AIDS and fuels the growth of organized crimes while weakening law enforcement entities. Too often TIP entails the participation of or complexity of corrupt law enforcement agents who help by providing fraudulent immigration documents, allowing illicit border crossings, or protecting the oppressive workplaces and brothels where victims are trapped. Thus, human trafficking undermines national security by eroding the integrity of national and local law enforcement and the rule of law.

Sex trafficking – whether inside a nation or crosswise over national fringes – disregards fundamental human rights, including the rights to substantial trustworthiness, uniformity, poise, wellbeing, security, and opportunity from viciousness and torment. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime defines trafficking in persons as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.”[1]  Key international human rights bargains, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), consider sex trafficking a type of sex discrimination and human rights violation. The various initiatives have been taken on an international front which include the first step taken by the United Nations to combat trafficking which was the Protocol to “Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children”, and was implemented on December 25, 2003.

In India, thousands of women and children are trafficked ordinary to some destination or the other and are compelled to lead lives of subjection. Article 23 of the Constitution of India which precludes trafficking in people and other comparative types of constrained work (a principal right allowed to natives of India), the Government of India has sanctioned in 1956 the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act (SITA) and renamed in 1986 as the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (ITPA). Different other focal laws of the nation likewise contain procurements in this respect.

Each trafficking victim represents a profit center that continues to generate income for his or her exploiter, compared to illegal commodities such as drugs or arms that represent a one-time transaction. Where is this seemingly limitless supply of trafficking victims coming from, and what factors contribute to sustaining this supply? Desperate and gullible populations, especially in developing and transitioning countries, are susceptible to the promises made by recruiters (including family members) of a better life in another place, especially promises of paid work, marriage, or domestic service. The ease of global transportation and communication is also an enabling factor in this increased trade making recruiters, brokers, transporters, receivers and distributers easily connect to business of the abused product- an unwitting human soul. The “core issue” of trafficking is migration that is people moving in order to seek better lives and economic opportunities. A major anti- trafficking priority should be to remove barriers to safe, legal migration. There are no reliable estimates of the true incidence of trafficking, and many commonly cited statistics are manipulated and overblow.[2]

The exploiters put almost no in their human inputs; the perpetual supply of new victimized people makes it more prudent to supplant a slave when he or she is spent. As sex trafficking is the real motivation behind why human trafficking is carried out, it can’t be disregarded that youngsters are likewise caught in this exchange business in spite of the way that universal pledges and conventions force upon state parties a commitment to criminalize the business sexual abuse of kids.

Prostitution is not the famous “most seasoned calling” however the most seasoned type of mistreatment. Legitimization, regulation, and standardization of prostitution darkens the brutality at its heart and disregards that prostitution is a magnet for additionally trafficking victimized people. Wherever prostitution has been authorized or endured, there has been an increment in the interest for sex slaves and the quantity of exploited outside ladies – numerous likely casualties of human trafficking. Consequently, giving a feeling that legitimization of prostitution is not in any case anywhere close to the answer for ending human trafficking.

With this attitude, it has been seen that Government of India has considered the complexities and The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Amendment Bill. It makes trafficking and sexual misuse of persons for business reason a culpable offense. The Act was passed in accordance with the International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, marked by India on May 9, 1950. Despite the fact that the Act was altered twice (1978 and 1986), it didn’t turn out to be a successful obstruction to trafficking or sexual abuse for business purposes. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2006 means to rebuff traffickers and accommodate stringent discipline to wrongdoers.

There has been an inability to execute the previously stated enactment, which has brought on and keeps on bringing on serious harm and bias to the casualties of prostitution. The authoritative deficiency is coupled by hardness showed by the State powers having fizzled and failed to acknowledge obligation and release their obligation as ordered by law.

In Vishal Jeet v. Union of India[3] there was a PIL against constrained prostitution of young ladies, Devdasis and Joginis, and for their recovery. The Supreme Court held that regardless of stringent and rehabilitative procurements under the different Acts, results were not as coveted and, subsequently, called for assessment of the measures by the Central and State Governments to guarantee their execution. The Court called for serious and fast legitimate activity against exploiters, for example, pimps, merchants and massage parlor managers. A few orders were issued by the Court, which entomb alia, included setting up of a different Zonal Advisory Committees, giving rehabilitative homes, viably managing the Devdasi framework, Jogin custom, and so forth. They expected to guarantee that trafficked persons are not treated as offenders yet as casualties of wrongdoing who have endured genuine human rights ill-use. Lamentably, most Governments keep on treating trafficked persons as illicit vagrants and crooks, in this manner further defrauding the exploited people.

It cannot be ignored that the some of the already existent NGOs are doing excellent wok for the rehabilitation but the governments at an international level need to come up with cooperation methods that help in providing better rehabilitation of the trafficked victims. The International Labour Organization has come up with the Model based on the Centre for the Protection of Children’s Rights Foundation. It discusses about the model keeping in mind various factors. CPCR, alongside others, campaigned for the legal reform in support of the following measures:

  • Decriminalization of all victims of abuse and trafficking
  • Higher Penalties for abusers, including traffickers
  • Amendment of criminal procedures to include a child friendly and sensitive approach
  • Strengthening of recovery services for victims to reduce and/or prevent negative repercussions from the legal process. [4]

It will be ignorance to say that human trafficking only affects poor or economically weaker countries. It is true that these countries are the worst victims of any kind of organized crimes, reasons being – poor governance, lack of machinery to implement national and international laws and meager human resource development. It is only humane conscience of the perpetrators and a general purpose to combat these crimes that can revive the situation and bring it out of the depths of abysmal darkness.

[1]What is Human Trafficking, available at

[2] JOHN R. MILLER, Slave Trade- Combating Human Trafficking, Harvard International Review, Vol. 27, No. 4 (WINTER 2006), pp. 70-73

[3] 1990 AIR 1412

[4] Rehabilitation of the Victims of Child Trafficking: A Multidisciplinary Approach available at—asia/—ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_63_en.pdf