By Deepti Purwar, Law College, Dehradun.
The Geneva Interim Agreement, officially titled the Joint Plan of Action, was a pact signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in Geneva, Switzerland. The agreement sought to impose injunction on Iran’s nuclear program in exchange for decreased economic sanctions on Iran. The comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme is a topic of the final phase of the negotiations among Iran and the P5+1 i.e. United States, Russia, China, France, United Kingdom and Germany and the European Union regarding Iran’s nuclear program. The agreement was to prevent Iran from getting a nuclear weapon, to impose strict limits on Iran’s enrichment programme, the redesign of a plutonium-producing heavy water reactor under construction and a highly-intrusive inspection regime to prevent cheating. IAEA resolution to enter into safeguard agreement with Iran to make Iran a non-nuclear weapon state party to Non-proliferation Treaty. India also had voted in favour of the IAEA resolution at the Board of Governors meeting of September 24, 2005.
- The nuclear agreement could have significant advantages to India. Iran was India’s second-largest supplier of crude oil, economic sanctions on the Iranians since 2003 have effectively forced India to import oil from other countries – Iraq, Kuwait and the UAE. India had to pay for oil that it imports from Iran through other countries- Turkey and Russia. For Iran, sanctions meant that it has to accept payments for significant portion of its exports to India in Indian rupees, leading to large and unused reserves of the currency in Iran. Thereby lowering oil prices in India.
- The agreement will help in keeping Taliban at bay. Iran and India must join together in a fight against Taliban and to prevent Afghanistan from becoming a Taliban controlled State. If the nuclear deal is signed United States will engage with Iran on Afghanistan which implies less terrorism on the ground of Afghanistan. This again can be an advantage for India to strengthen economic relations with Iran.
- The deal may also provide the necessary platform for India and Iran to cooperate on the development of the Chabahar deep-water port. Chabahar’s strategic location will make it a critical transit point for trade between not only India, Iran and Afghanistan, but also provide connectivity to Central Asia and Europe, via the International North South Transport Corridor(INSTC), which is estimated to be 40 percent shorter and 30 percent less expensive than trade via the Red Sea-Suez Canal-Mediterranean route. Chabahar will also provide the means for India to pursue trade with Afghanistan. Pakistan has made it difficult for the Afghans to gain access to the Indian market. Access to India via the Wagah and Attari borders continues to be restricted. With India already having built a 200 km road linking the Iranian town of Zaranj to Delaram in Afghanistan, Chabahar presents a safer and more economical means for India and Afghanistan to pursue trade than most current options that utilize transit routes through Pakistan thereby strengthening relations between India and Iran.
- India’s cooperation in signing nuclear treaty with Iran can have a positive impact thereby increasing chances of India to become a permanent member of Security Council in future if the membership is increased of Security Council.
- Efforts have been made by Israel and Saudi Arabia to attack Iran in the past. The deal will make Israel a de-facto member of the Arab NATO through its coordinated anti-Iranian policies with Saudi Arabia, which would thus further expand the reach of the US’ new Lead From Behind entity in the Mideast.
- The deal can enhance the South Energy Corridor by tapping Iranian and Turkmen gas reserves and selling it to the hungry European market.
- The deal could increase the chances of Iran to become the official member of multipolar organization to be held in Russia.
- According to Secretary of State John Kerry, the deal is not “legally binding” agreement with Iran, meaning future presidents could choose not to implement the accord. If Iran managed to produce nuclear weapons, it would trigger arms race in the region and lead to a fragile political situation.
- According to Saudi Arabia Iran will have the ability to improve its economic standing, and the capability to create a nuclear weapon – since the deal will only take effect for a relatively short period of time, 15 years, and will not destroy Iran’s technical capabilities to maintain a nuclear programme. Both results would strengthen Iran and its allies in the region.
The Iranian nuclear programme is a unique test case in itself. With growing concerns for controlling proliferation there are also demands for equitable cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear weapon across the globe. The Agreement between Iran and P5+1 countries looks forward towards securing international peace and security, ban on test and use of nuclear weapons to provide for a safe environment and to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.
The Iran nuclear deal may have serious positive effect on the economy of India. The international relation with Iran is likely to get strengthened in futures. The result of this agreement will help in preserving international peace and security and a much safer environment for the successive generations. War and pollution free environment can be achieved by this nuclear deal.